El Centenario de la Confederación Patronal Española. El Papel de los Catalanes, per Soledad Bengoechea

Hemeroteca Nacional : Mundo Grafico, 30 de gener 1918. http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/details.vm?q=id:0002136376
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Soledad Bengoechea, historiadora

Este año se cumple el primer centenario de la fundación de la Confederación Patronal Española, que desde entonces, y habiendo cambiado ligeramente el nombre, tiene su sede central en Madrid.  Como puede observarse en las pequeñas biografías situadas al final de este artículo, el papel de los catalanes en esta organización ha sido y es muy importante. Fue un empresario de la construcción el primer fundador y, actualmente, es también un directivo empresarial catalán el que la dirige.

 Un Primer Congreso Patronal

La idea de constituir una Confederación Patronal Española tomó forma el año 1913, cuando tuvo como propulsores inmediatos más destacados tres puntos claves: una creciente conflictividad social, unos hechos políticos -a consecuencia de los cuales el partido liberal y conservador, puntales del sistema de la Restauración, entraron en una aguda crisis interna- y unos proyectos de ley presentados al Instituto de Reformas Sociales (IRS). La Confederación se fundó durante los actos celebrados con motivo de un Primer Congreso Patronal Español celebrado en Madrid en septiembre de 1914.

El proyecto de celebrar un Primer Congreso Patronal se había planteado ya a principios de 1912 en Barcelona, durante un acto de homenaje dedicado al líder histórico de los patronos de la construcción, José Sabadell, acto al cual asistió una amplia representación de la patronal madrileña. En realidad, el homenaje era sólo una excusa para activar los esfuerzos de constituir federaciones patronales en diversas regiones, que, articuladas, constituirían la Confederación Patronal Española. Con este objetivo, durante aquella reunión se nombraron los hombres que serían los encargados de fundar federaciones patronales a lo largo de España. La iniciativa fue un éxito. Dos años después, a lo largo y ancho de la geografía española, se habían constituido quince federaciones patronales.

Cuando a instancias de las federaciones patronales de Barcelona, Madrid y Zaragoza entre los días 25 y 30 de septiembre de 1914 se celebró este Primer Congreso Patronal, Sabadell era ya bien conocido en el mundo empresarial español. Durante sus actos se puso de manifiesto que el líder patronal catalán era un referente. Allí actuó en representación de diversas federaciones españolas que no habían podido concurrir y que delegaron en él su confianza, considerándole un interlocutor muy válido.

Constitución de la Confederación Patronal Española

Todo indica que fue en aquellos momentos cuando se trazaron los rasgos que constituyeron la estructura de la Confederación Patronal Española y se delimitaron las líneas que marcaron en adelante las relaciones de esta supraorganización con las federaciones locales. Pues bien, las federaciones regionales que conformaban la Confederación ya estaban formadas por ramos de industria -anticipándose, por tanto,  a un proceso que la Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), sindicato mayoritario en aquellos momentos en el mundo industrial catalán, no llevaría a cabo hasta junio de 1918- llamadas A,B.C,D,E,F,G,H. Cada uno de estos ramos correspondía a los siguientes tipos de industria: construcción, industrias alimentarías, industrias metalúrgicas, comercio, fabricación, pequeñas industrias, transportes y artes gráficas. A la vez, estas agrupaciones se descomponían por oficios. Por ejemplo, el ramo de la construcción se dividía en 21 oficios, entre ellos, paletas, pintores, etc. Todo ello indica que Sabadell, utilizando la Confederación Patronal, pretendía vertebrar de una manera novedosa, “moderna”, la totalidad de la patronal española. Para conseguir ese sueño, cada conjunto de agrupaciones se formaba en cada una de las quince regiones donde ya se había instalado una Federación Patronal. Con este fin, cada Federación tomó el nombre de la región correspondiente: Andalucía, Aragón, las Baleares, las Canarias, Extremadura, Galicia, León, Castilla la Nueva, Castilla la Vieja, Cataluña, Murcia, Navarra, Valencia y País Vasco. Este planteamiento, mucho más ambicioso, se diferenciaba del mantenido hasta ese momento: cada una de las federaciones que asistieron al Congreso no representaba una región, sino simplemente localidades concretas: Barcelona, Zaragoza…

El proyecto de constituir una Confederación Patronal Española a escala estatal concluía durante la celebración del Primer Congreso. La Confederación nacía como una organización dispuesta a velar por la suerte y continuidad de sus filiales, las federaciones regionales. Pero su funcionamiento no sería relevante hasta la coyuntura de 1919. Entonces, en un ambiente de crispación en diversos puntos del Estado, pero sobre todo en Barcelona, se potenciaría la actuación de la Confederación, fundamentalmente para apoyar un locaut que tuvo lugar en Barcelona. Entonces se manifestó la eficacia de lo que había constituido el sueño de José Sabadell: la unión patronal, que permitiría, en un momento dado, disponer del potencial económico necesario para afrontar las demandas obreras por el simple procedimiento de cerrar las puertas del trabajo.  Además, esta solidaridad patronal otorgaba la certeza de que no se proporcionaría colocación a los obreros vetados por los patronos en conflicto.

Otra finalidad que impulsó esta movilización patronal fue la de presentar una fuerza conjunta ante el gobierno, presionándolo en todo aquello relativo a cuestiones laborales y, de hecho, las resoluciones finales a que llegaron las ponencias presentadas en aquel Primer Congreso Patronal fueron presentadas en el Congreso de Diputados para que se aprobasen como leyes, tratando así de suplantar, o al menos de compartir, las competencias del IRS.

El proyecto de constituir una Confederación patronal a nivel estatal quedó definitivamente finalizado durante la celebración de este Congreso. La Confederación surgía como una organización fuerte y dispuesta a velar por la suerte y continuidad de sus filiales, las Federaciones regionales.

José Sabadell, que contaba cincuenta y siete años de edad, tuvo un gran peso en este Congreso. Durante sus sesiones, fue nombrado presidente efectivo y, además, presidente efectivo de la Confederación Patronal Española de Federaciones Patronales Españolas.

Temas que se tocaron: La patronal contra el proyecto del IRS

Un factor de primera magnitud que desde principios de siglo impulsó  la organización de los sectores económicos catalanes fue el reformismo social llevado a cabo desde el Estado de la Restauración impulsado por las corrientes reformistas que llegaban de países del extranjero y sustentadas por muchos de los políticos y por hombres ligados al IRS. Mediante este reformismo se pretendía  desarrollar una sociedad armónica, sin luchas de clases, siendo del miedo del anarquismo y socialismo de lo que se nutrieron los primeros planteamientos reformistas. Pero la patronal catalana, y la española, siempre se quejaban de que su representación en el IRS era nula ante la influencia que ejercían los sectores obreros. No es de extrañar, por tanto, que unos proyectos de ley presentados por el IRS, aprobados por el Gobierno y que debían de discutirse en el Parlamento fueran el motor que impulsó el Primer Congreso Patronal y que los temas que se debatieron en el mismo giraran en torno a dichos proyectos. La patronal se erigía corporativamente con suficiente autoridad como para presentar enmiendas a los proyectos de ley propuestos por el IRS.

Para llevar a cabo la discusión de estas enmiendas durante la celebración del Congreso se formaron ocho secciones distintas. Estaban formadas por un presidente, un vice-presidente y un secretario. Los temas a tratar fueron los siguientes: Primero, confección del reglamento de la Confederación y de un periódico, que sería el órgano de expresión de la Confederación y de unión de las distintas Federaciones (los tres representantes eran catalanes); segundo, versaba sobre la intervención de la Confederación en los proyectos de reformas sociales y sobre el contrato de trabajo; tercero, giraba en torno a la ley sobre accidentes de trabajo y tribunales industriales; cuarto, se ocupaba del tema aprendizaje y enseñanza profesional; quinto, estaba dedicado a los montepíos cajas de retiro y bolsas de trabajo; sexto, trataba del seguro mutuo de huelgas; séptimo, se titulaba comercial e industrial, siendo sus representantes catalanes. Por último, el tema octavo  estaba dedicado a cuestiones varias.

Clausura del Congreso

El acta de la sesión de clausura del Primer Congreso Patronal fue abierta por el ministro de Fomento, el conservador Javier Ugarte. A continuación, tomó la palabra un representante de la Unión Gremial de Barcelona José Pintó, portavoz de 30.000 gremialistas barceloneses. Su discurso versó sobre la necesidad de organización de las clases medias. Pintó fue seguido por Artur Gallart, presidente de la Unión Gremial. Gallart, dirigiéndose principalmente al representante del gobierno, señaló la necesidad de que las sociedades patronales pudieran estar presentes en todas las corporaciones de índole informativa, como el IRS, para poder formular los dictámenes a los cuerpos legisladores.

También en esa línea habló José Sabadell. En nombre de la clase patronal, señaló de nuevo lo que era el tema central del Congreso: la necesidad de colaborar, como clase, al lado de los gobiernos. Partiendo de la imposibilidad de que un político profesional pudiera entender del mundo del trabajo, los empresarios brindaban, corporativamente, su cooperación para los temas de índole laboral.  Señalamos, de nuevo, que el alma de esta ideología eran dos barceloneses: Gallart y Sabadell. Una característica de la mayoría de los oradores que participaron en este Congreso es que se definieron como “hijos del trabajo”; es decir, que proclamaron con orgullo que procedían “de la clase obrera”. Apelando a ello, aseguraban tener horror a la lucha de clases y afirmaban buscar la armonía “entre el capital y el trabajo”. Esta fórmula mágica fue, en realidad, la que se pretendió conseguir a través de un Congreso que quiso aglutinar a la patronal española. El párrafo siguiente es bien significativo:

¡Ah, señores! Procuremos alejarnos de todo cuanto signifique lucha de clases; borremos esta palabra del léxico usual que hemos de emplear refiriéndonos al capital y al trabajo, y procuremos huir de sus predicaciones que del otro lado del Pirineo suelen venir a España…

Durante los actos del Congreso se celebraron también actos lúdicos, organizando excursiones y banquetes. En la sesión de clausura, al que acudieron algunas esposas de los congresistas, el ministro de Fomento puso la nota “socarrona” al acto de forma harto elocuente:

Señores: voy a dirigiros breves palabras porque es tarde y no quiero fatigaros; pero permitidme, ante todo, que recoja una nota que aquí se ha dado  y de la cual no puedo prescindir. He de congratularme de la presencia en este acto de bellas y distinguidas  damas que honran la solemnidad que celebramos, y que matizan el salón como las flores matizan el campo recreando el espíritu y perfumando el ambiente.

Presidentes de la Confederación Patronal Española (1914-1923 y 1977-2014)

Primer presidente: José Sabadell Giol (septiembre, 1914-diciembre, 1914). José Sabadell, contratista de obras, nació el año 1857 en la villa de Gracia. Como miembro del partido conservador, fue alcalde de esa ciudad (1891-1892) y después concejal del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona (1900). Su lideraje patronal sólo se vio truncado en diciembre de 1914, cuando falleció a causa de la epidemia de tifus que por aquel entonces asolaba la ciudad condal.

Segundo presidente: Francisco Junoy. (Diciembre 1914 – diciembre 1922). En 1922, Junoy pasó a presidir la recientemente creada sociedad Estudios Sociales y Económicos, entidad con sede en Madrid pero de ámbito estatal.

Tercer presidente: Félix Graupera Lleonart  (accedió a la presidencia en enero 1923, parece que con el golpe de estado de Primo de Rivera en septiembre de ese año la organización desapareció. Durante la República tampoco hubo una organización de estas características). Graupera nació en Barcelona en 1873 y murió asesinado en Arenys de Mar en el verano de 1936, poco después de iniciada la guerra civil española. Era propietario y contratista de obras.

Cuarto presidente: Carlos Ferrer-Salat (1977-1988). Presidente fundador en la democracia de la Confederación Española de Organizaciones Empresariales. Ferrer-Salat nació en Barcelona en 1931 y falleció en 1998.  En el campo industrial se dedicó a la industria química y farmacéutica donde dirigió varias empresas y fue consejero de algunas multinacionales. Su actividad principal se centró en la empresa Laboratorios Ferrer S.L. que en 1975 se convirtió en Ferrer Internacional S.A. Además de esa compañía fundó otras, entre la que destaca Enclavamientos y Señales, S.A. (EYSSA) que posteriormente se integraría en la Corporación Industrial Catalana. Fue presidente del Fomento del Trabajo Nacional. En el verano de 1984 el partido Alianza Popular le ofreció ocupar una de las vicepresidencias, pero finalmente decidió no entrar en política activa.

Quinto presidente: José María Cuevas Salvador (1984.2007). Cuevas (Madrid, 29 de junio de 1935 –Ibídem 27 de octubre de 2008. Su actividad empresarial estuvo vinculada con el sector del papel. Perteneció al consejo de administración de varias industrias papeleras, como “Pultex Ibérica” o “Papelera del Mediterráneo” y dirigió el Grupo Sarrió. Dentro de su labor en el sector papelero destaca su implicación, en 1976, en el nacimiento de la Organización de Fabricantes de Pastas de Papel. Además de estos cargos, fue presidente de la constructora Vallehermoso y del Consejo Superior de Cámaras de Comercio.

Sexto presidente: Gerardo Díaz Ferrán (2007-2010). Díaz Ferrán (Madrid, 27 de diciembre de 1942) fue empresario. Desde 1985 y hasta su venta en junio de 2010 fue copropietario del Grupo Marsans junto a su socio  Gonzalo Pascual. En el año 1967 fundó la empresa TRAPSA junto con su socio Gonzalo Pascual para explotar varias líneas de transporte urbano adjudicadas mediante concurso público por el Ayuntamiento de Madrid. En 1971 constituyeron TRAPSATUR la primera agencia de viajes mayorista del grupo.

Joan Rosell Lastortras (2010-actualidad). Nació el 13 de enero de 1957 en Barcelona. Presidente de Fecsa-Endesa, de la patronal Fomento del Trabajo Nacional, de Fuerzas Eléctricas de Cataluña y OMB, Sistemas de Higiene Urbana. Ha sido consejero de la consultoría informática Fihoca, Inmobiliaria Colonial, Siemens España, Endesa Italia, Endesa, Applus Servicios tecnológicos, Aguas de Barcelona y Port Aventura. Es Director General de la empresa juguetera Congost Plastic. Con Juan Echevarría Puig fue uno de los promotores del partido político Solidaritat Catalana, con el que se presentó a las elecciones autonómicas catalanas de 1980, sin obtener representación. Es también patrono de la Fundación del FC Barcelona. Desde 2007 pertenece al consejo de administración de Criteria Caixa Corp.

Per citar l’article: Bengoechea, S. (2014). El Centenario de la Confederación Patronal Española. El Papel de los Catalanes. Catxipanda, 1(1).Recuperat (data de visualització), a http://wpu.ir/fr3qg

 

 

60 Comments on El Centenario de la Confederación Patronal Española. El Papel de los Catalanes, per Soledad Bengoechea

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